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Bonding agents Cement-based slurries

Er. Parbhakar Dwivedi
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Three main types of bonding agents are frequently used:

(1) Cement-based slurries

(2) Epoxies, and

(3) Latex emulsions.

(1) Cement based Slurries

For Portland cement based repairs and overlays, cement or sand cement slurry is used. After the substrate has been prepared and immediately before placing the repair materials, a thin coating of creamy grout must be vigorously and thoroughly boomed or brushed into the prepared surface.

(2) Latex Emulsions

A latex may be used as a bonding agent in three ways:

(i) Preparing a neat cement slurry, utilizing the latex as part of the gauging water

(ii) The use of a 1:1 water-latex diluted materials

(iii) The use of a re-emulsifiable latex which can be softened and retackified upon contact with water

In the case of latex-modified repair materials or overlays, the bonding grout can be boomed in from the mix itself. For latex-modified materials, it can also be mixed separately. There are, now available, factory blended latex-modified cement slurry bonding agents which are mixed with water on site and applied to the prepared concrete surface. The following latex

Products are used as bonding agents:

(a) Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR):

SBR lattices which are compatible with cementations compounds are copolymers. They show good stability in the presence of multivalent cations such as calcium and aluminium and are unaffected by the additions of relatively large amounts of electrolytes The SBR lattices may coagulated if subjected to high temperatures freezing temperatures, or severe mechanical action for prolonged periods of time.

(b) Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) lattices:

Commercial materials are copolymers manufactured by the emulsion polymerization process. Two main types of polyvinyl acetate lattices are used in repair nonremulsifiable PVA, and emulsifiable PVA.

(i) Non emulsifiable PVA- This PVA forms s film which offers good water resistance, good light stability, and good aging characteristics Because of its compatibility with cement, it is widely used as bonding agent and a binder for cementitious water- based paint and waterproofing coatings.

(ii) Emulsifiable PVA- These lattices produce a film that can be softened and retackified with water. Such a latex permits application of a water-based overlay. They are the most widely used as a bonding agent for plaster, and to bond finish or base coat gypsum, or Portland cement plaster to interior surfaces of cured cast-in-place concrete.

(c) Acrylic lattices:

Acrylic lattices are produced from acrylic resins which are polymers and copolymers of acrylic and meth acrylic acids. These resinous materials range in physical properties from soft elastomers to hard plastics. The emulsions is used in cementitious compounds in much the same manner as SBR lattices.

(3) Epoxy based bonding agents

A variety of epoxy (usually 2-components) products are available for use as bonding agents. They may, however, produce a vapor barrier, resulting in the failure of bond. Epoxies have poor creep properties and should be avoided when the repair is subject to constant loading. They are suitable for application to both dry and moist surfaces. Tensile strength of epoxies is much higher than that of concrete.

(a) Epoxy lattices:

Epoxy emulsions are produced from liquid epoxy resin when mixed with the curing agent. The curing agent serves the additional functions of an emulsifying and wetting agent and as a surfactant. Emulsions are stable and water dilatable from the time of mixing until gelation occurs. Pot life may vary from 1 to 6 hours, depending upon the curing agent selected, by adding high amounts of water.

(b) 100% Solids epoxy bonding agents:

Various epoxy products are available for bonding of freshly placed concrete to cured concrete as well as concrete to steel. Most products contain 100% solids resins which may or may not contain thixotropic fillers and other additives to enhance a particular property or reduce cost. Current products are available in various consistencies, ranging from a highly filled paste to that of liquids with viscosities of 100 centipoises similar to that of water. It is a performance specification based on end use and there are no specific limits on chemicals composition. Instead the materials must meet requirements related to physical properties such as viscosity, bond strength, shrinkage, and thermal compatibility.

The specification classifies the epoxy resin bonding system by type grade, and class. The properties stipulated in the specification are of great importance: namely, bond strength, shrinkage, and thermal compatibility. The materials are placed in one of four categories:

(i) General repairs- these materials do not fit the other three categories, but are suitable for general repair work.

(ii) High early strength- these materials have a compressive strength of 8 Mpa at 4 hrs.

(iii) Self-leveling- these materials are very flowable and will spread out to fill a cavity. They are used on horizontal surfaces and are useful for hard to reach areas.

(iv) Slurry coats- these are used for very thin repairs or for coatings.

Note - Brand names of some commercially available bonding agents ready for application at site

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