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Common building stones of India

Er. Parbhakar Dwivedi


List of building stones which are commonly used in India together with their classification, qualities uses and localities.

S. No.1 stone classification Qualities Uses States localities
1 Basalt and trap Igneous Hard and tough: difficult to work. Its sp. Gr. Is 3 and compressive strength varies from 150 to 185 N/mm2. its weight varies from 18 to 29 kN per m3. Road metal, for rubble masonry, foundation work.etc. Maharashtra, Bihar, Gujarat, Bengal and M.P
2 Chalk Sedimentary Pure white limestone: soft and easy to form powder. In preparinglazir glazier's putty; as coloring material in manufacture of Portland cement. Same as limestone
3 Gneiss Metamorphic Metamorphic Splits into thin slabs; easy to work its sp. Is 2.69 and compressive strength is 206 N/mm2. Street paving, rough stone masonry work, etc. Madras, Mysore, ihram
4 Granite Igneous Hard. Durable and available in different colours, highly resistant to natural forces, can take nice polish. Its sp. Gr varies from 2.6 to 2.7 and compressive strength varies from 75 to 127 N/mm2. Its weight is about 26 to 27 kN per m3. Steps, sills, facing work. Walls, bridge piers, columns, Road metal, ballast, it is unsuitable for carving. Kashmir, U.P. Madras Punjab, M.P., Rajasthan, Mysore, Maharashtra, Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Kerala and Gujarat
5 Kankar Sedimentary Impure limestone Road metal, manufacture of hydraulic lime, etc. North and Central India.
6 Laterite Metamorphic Porous spongy structure; easily quarried in blocks contains high percentage of oxide of iron; available in different colours. Its compressive strength varies from 1.80 to 3.10 N/mm2 Building stone, road metal, rough stone masonry work, etc. Bihar, Orissa, Mysore,M.P., A.P.,Maharashtra, Kerala and Madras
7 Limestine Sedimentary Consists of cabonate of lime; easy Its sp. gr. varies from 2.00 to 2.75 and compressive strength is 54 N/mm2 Floors, steps, walls, road metal, manufacture of lime in blast furnaces, etc. Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab, M.P., Gujarat A.P, Andaman Islands, Bengal, Bihar, Himachal, Pradesh and U.P
8 Marble Metamorphic Can take good polish and available in different colours. Its sp.gr is 2.65 and compressive strength is 71 Nimm2 Flooring, and work, columns, steps, ornamental work, etc. it can take nice polish. It can easily be sawn and carved. Rajasthan, Maharashtra, A.P., Mysore, M.P. and U.P
9 Murum Metamorphic Decomposed laterite, deep brown or red in colour. Blindage for metal roads, for fanc paths and garden walls. Same as laterite.
10 Quartzite Metamorphic Hard, brittle, crystalline and compact:; difficult to work and dress. Retaining walls, road metal concrete aggregate, Pitching, rubble masonry, facing of buildings, etc. , Bengal, A.P., Himavhal Pradesh Madras, U.P., Mysore, Gujarat, Punjab and Rajasthan.
11 Sandstone Sedimentary Sedimentary Consists of quartz and other minerals, easy to work and dress and available in different colours. Its sp. gr. varies from 2.65 to 2.95 and compressive strength is 64 N/mm2. Its weight is about 20 to 22 kN per m3. Steps, facing work, columns, flooring, walls, road metal, omamental carving, etc. A.P., M.P.,Panjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, U.P., Andaman islands, Bengal, Bihar, Himavhal Pradesh, Kashmir and Madras.
12 Slate Metamorphic Black colour and splits along natural bedding planes; non-absorbent. Its sp. gr is 2.89 and compressive strength varies from 75 to 207 N/mm2. Roofing work sills, damp- proof courses, etc. U.P., M.P., Bihar, Madras, Rajasthan, and Mysore.


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