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Materials commonly used as sealants

Er. Parbhakar Dwivedi


Materials commonly used for sealing joints under various classes of sealants mentioned are described below:

1. Oil-based sealants

Oil-based sealants are easily applied caulks that adhere well to most surfaces and require no special joint preparation. They are used in non-moving joints and cracks. The selected oils and fillers that comprise the product slowly harden as the oils dry or oxidize. Some of the better oil based products have costs similar to acrylic latex based sealants.

2. Mastics and thermoplastics

Mastics are highly filled, inexpensive materials that are used in joints where the anticipated movement does not exceed 5%. The materials used as mastics are asphalt, rubber asphalts and pitch or coal tar which becomes plastic when heated. Thermoplastic are upgraded mastic type materials which show slight improvement in elasticity and chemical resistance when compared to mastics.

3. Latex-based sealants

Latex-based sealants are sealants that cure by water evaporation to a resilient material that can accommodate slight movement. The surface usually dries rapidly enough to be appointed 30 to 60 min after application. Due to their quick curing capability and good adhesion to a variety of surfaces without primary they find wide use for residential construction applications.

4. Butyl sealants

Butyl sealants are soft, low modulus, that cure by solvent release to a rubber, capable of sealing joints which experience small movement. They have excellent adhesion to wood, metal, glass and concrete without primers although they possess good water resistance, they are not suitable for immersion service.

5. Solvent-based acrylic sealants

Solvent based acrylic sealants, cure by solvent release. They are versatile construction sealants providing a high performance seal for many building construction joints without the need for primers. Acrylics have excellent adhesion.

6. Polysulphide Sealants: Described in separate topics

7. Silicone Sealant: Described in separate topics

8. Polyurethane Sealant: Described in separate topics

9. Kraton-based sealants

Kraton-based sealants are new styrene-butadiene styrene and ethylene- butylenes styrene thermoplastic elastomers, usually formulated with solids contents of approximately 90%. Therefore, there is little solvent release and shrinkage of the applied sealant. Despite their ability to cure to a hard possess good elongation and can be formulated to provide clear cured rubber which finds use in architectural applications.

10. Epoxy sealants

Epoxy sealants are modified, flexibilized materials which possess high strength and adhesion in conjunction with their resistance to chemical attack. They can be formulated to produce a grade that is hard enough to resist wheeled traffic and keep the joint edges from fracturing. Such products will usually meet the requirements for an industrial floor joint sealant. Epoxies and modified epoxy sealants have the best chemical resistance to concentrated mineral acids, alkalis, high molecular weight organic solvents, and acids. The products are avail mostly as two component systems consisting of a resign and hardening agent. Two the types, self-leveling and nonsag grades are available. Limitations of epoxy materials include the service temperature limit of 60°C.


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