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Notes for guidance in the process of painting

Er. Parbhakar Dwivedi
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Some of the important points to be noted before we take up the discussion of process of painting are mentioned below:

(1) Brushes: It is necessary to have good brushes for painting. The brushes should be composed of bristles and not of horse hairs. The bristle brushes are elastic and possess good paint-holding capacity. The bristles are split at ends and in this respect, they can be distinguished from horse hairs.

It is preferable to use a round brush in painting. The new brushes should be soaked in water upto level of bristles for a period of about two hours and then they should be allowed to dry for a period of about one hour. During painting, the brush should be immersed in paint upto about one-third length of the bristles and the excess paint in the brush is removed by gently pressing the bristles against the inside surface of the pot. After the work is over, the brushes should be cleaned at once with kerosene oil.

(2) Paints: The ready-mixed paints of different make and various brand are available in the market. They are available in different tints and can be applied in the same form as received. The ready-mixed paints are normally expensive and they are to be used soon after opening the sealed container because of the fact that volatisation of the vehicle and solvent will take place when exposed to the at mospheric oxygen. If the ready-mixed paint is kept exposed to air for a long duration, the solidification of the base and the pigment occurs.

The procedure for preparing paint from stiff paint is as follows:

(i) The sufficient stiff paint is taken in a pot. The remaining stiff paint is to be covered or left with a layer of linseed oil.

(ii) The linseed oil which may either be raw or boiled or pale is then mixed with stiff paint by a stick.

(iii) The other ingredients of paint are then added.

(iv) If a colour is required, suitable pigment is added and thoroughly mixed.

(v) A second pot is taken and it is covered with a canvass which is tied tightly.

(vi) The mixed paint is then allowed to pass through the canvass of second pot. The brushes may be used for this purpose.

(vii)The paint is then ready for use. The mixed paint may be prevented from drying by maintaining a thin film of linseed oil or of water at top.

(3) Knotting: The term knotting is used to indicate the covering or killing of all knots in woodwork with a substance through which the resin cannot exude or come out.

There are three methods of knotting as mentioned below:

(i) Ordinary or size knotting: This is applied in two coats. For the first coat, the red lad ground in water and mixed with strong glue size is used in hot condition. This coat dries in about ten minutes and then second coat is applied. The second coat consists of red lead ground in oil and it is thinned by boiled oil and turpentine.

(ii) Patent knotting: This is applied in two coats. For both the coats, the varnish prepared by dissolving shellac in methylated spirits of wine is used.

(iii) Lime knotting: The knot is covered by hot lime and it is left for 24 hours. The surface is then scrapped off and then ordinary knotting is carried out.

(4) Stopping: The term stopping is used to indicate the rubbing down of the surface after the first coat of paint is applied. The rubbing is done by means of pumice- stone or glass paper or t. Before rubbing is commenced, the holes, cracks, etc. on the surface are filled with ordinary putty made from whiting and linseed oil. The putty becomes hard when it dries.

The term hard stopping is used when instead of ordinary putty, an admixture of one- third white lead and two-third ordinary putty, is filled in holes, cracks, etc. It is adopted for superior work.

(5) Coats: The paint is usually applied in three or four coats. The first coat is known as the priming coat, the second one as under coat and the remaining as finishing coats.

The priming coat creates a layer or film which provides adhesion of the paint with the surface. It also protects the surface from weathering actions. The suitable material for priming coat should be used, depending on the nature of surface to be painted. The under coat serves to provide foundation or support to the finishing coat. The surface is made even and all irregularities of the surface are removed by this coat.

The finishing coat or coats are then applied as per requirements.

(6) Spray painting: Instead of the ordinary brushes, a spraying pistol may be used for painting work. The pistol works under compressed air and the paint thrown through the pistol on the surface forms a thin uniform film or layer of paint on the surface. The spray painting is superior to painting by brushes. Following are the advantages of spray painting:

(i) The speed of work increases considerably.

(ii) An experienced painter can create artistic patterns or designs on the surface by spraying paints of different shades.

(iii) It is found to be economical in material and labour. The two coats of spray would suffice whereas ordinary brush painting would require three or four coats.

(iv) The mechanical equipment is such that the paint remains always in a state of motion. This ensures uniform mixing of ingredients of the paint.

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