Home > Materials Specifications

Sprinkler types, Upright, pendant spray, Sidewall, Type of Sprinkler System

Er. Parbhakar Dwivedi
0
 

       

Numerous factors such as the available water supply type of sprinklers, building construction features, and the anticipated fire hazards must be considered in the design of automatic sprinkler systems.

The selection of sprinkler type will vary with occupancy. Where more than one type of sprinkler is used within a compartment, sprinklers with similar response characteristics should be used (i.e. standard response). However, some hazards might benefit from designs that include the use of both standard and quick response sprinklers. Examples include rack storage protected by standard response sprinklers and quick response in-rack sprinklers.

Today, many varieties of sprinklers are available in the market. As said earlier, there may be 2000 varieties of sprinklers available in international market. Thus, certain criteria have to be fixed to enable a designer to decide which sprinkler to be used in a particular application.

Selection on Type of Use

This section attempts to categorize sprinklers into various types and the application where each type can be used. These include.

i. Upright and pendant spray.

ii. Sidewall spray.

iii. Extended coverage.

iv. Open type.

v. Residential type.

vi. Early suppression fast response.

vii. Large drop type.

viii. Special sprinklers.

i. Upright and Pendant Spray Sprinklers

These type of sprinklers are the most common type and can be used in all occupancies and construction types. The application of this type of sprinkler shall be decided in relation to K-factor (explained in articles to follow). General storage, rack storage, rubber storage baled cotton storage which requires spray density of 13.9 mm/min, standard response sprinkler with K-factor of 115 or larger shall be used.

While for spray densities greater than 13.9 mm/min, the K-factor of 160 or larger shall be used.

For densities of 8.2 mm/min or less, standard response sprinklers with a K-factor of 80 shall be permitted.

Experiments have shown that sprinklers with large orifice, i.e. K-factor of 115 or large perform better during storage fires because due to less velocity, water droplets become large and penetrates more readily in the fire core and allow more water to reach fire seat. The distribution pattern of these kind of sprinklers.

ii. Sidewall Spray Sprinklers

These sprinklers shall be installed only in light hazard occupancies with smooth, flat ceilings. These sprinklers can be used to protect areas below overhead doors. The discharge characteristics of sidewall sprinklers are not as effective as those of upright and pendant sprinklers for all applications. Thus, their use is limited to light hazard occupancies. In addition to this limitation, sidewall sprinklers shall not be installed below sloped ceilings.

These sprinklers are generally used in retrofit situations where access to ceilings cannot be permitted.

iii. Extended Coverage Sprinklers

These sprinklers are limited to a construction consisting of flat, smooth ceilings with a slope not exceeding 1:6

These sprinklers have to be specifically mentioned for such constructions. The area coverage with EC sprinklers is larger than the area permitted for other types. The extended coverage allows fewer sprinklers to be used.

However, discharge from an EC sprinkler has a longer, flatter throw than a standard upright or sidewall sprinkler. This pattern is affected by obstructions and slope of ceiling more than other types. That is why, EC sprinklers are limited for use to smooth flat ceiling with relatively small slopes.

iv. Open Sprinklers

These are used in deluge system to protect special hazards or exposures. These are spray sprinklers with their operating element removed. Aircraft hangers require foam water deluge systems which utilize open sprinklers as the predominant means of fire protection.

v. Residential Sprinklers

These sprinklers are tested using a residential fire scenario and hence are to be used in residential portion these sprinklers can be used in dwelling units and their adjoining corridors. Residential sprinkles are intended to prevent flashover in the room of fire origin, thus improving the chance for occupants to escape.

The residential sprinklers are so selected that its area of coverage is equal to or greater than both the length and width of the hazard area. For example, if hazard area to be protected is 4.4 x 5.6 m (13' 6" x 17’ 6’’), sprinklers to be selected shall have a coverage area of 4.5 x 5.8 m (14’x 18') or 5.8 x 5.8 m (18’x 18').

Vi. Early Suppression Fast Response Sprinklers (ESFR)

ESFR sprinklers use fast response operating elements and are designed to respond very quickly to a fire. Occupancies where fire can grow extremely fast with large increase in heat release rates over a short period of time, the quickness with which water is applied is critical. ESFR sprinklers are used in such type of applications.

Sloped roofs tend to cause a skewed distribution of heat from a fire burning beneath the roof. Thus, ESPR sprinklers shall not be used in such places.

Vii. Large Drop Sprinklers

These sprinklers are used where fire grow in an exponential manner. A substantial escalation in heat release rates and thermal velocities would be expected in relatively short time periods.

viii. Special Sprinklers

As the name indicates, these are the sprinklers which are designed for specific applications. But these sprinklers shall nevertheless maintain orifice size, temperature rating, and protection area of coverage as defined in various standards.

Nowadays, to provide more aesthetic look, sprinklers are mounted concealed inside the false ceiling. In these kind of sprinklers, all or part of the body, other than the shank thread, is mounted within a recessed housing.

Sponsored

PD Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd. Transforming construction for a new generation "Cost, Quality & Project management"

QS & Cost management, Bill Checking / Audit, Technical Auditors, Valuation, Contract and Tendering, Project Management, Project Planning, Quality Control, Consulting Engineers, Structural Consultancy

Close


Comment:

Name:

Email:

Civil N Construction Blog



Relevant Topics

Binding Wire Consumption Finish Sizes Tolerances Tensile Wrapping Bend Test Permissible Defective

Tar Classification Of Tar

Reclaimed Rubber Advantages Disadvantages Uses Of Reclaimed Rubber

Comparison Between Asphalt Bitumen Tar

Compounding Of Rubber Compounds Used For Natural Synthetic Rubber

Pitched Roof Coverings Sheets Comparison Between Ac Gi Sheets

Uses Of Rubber Consumption Of Rubber For Various Items

Turpentine Properties Of Turpentine Uses

Properties Of Rubber

Rubber Types Of Rubber

Forms Of Rubber

Vulcanization Effects Of Vulcanization

Sound Absorbent Materials Classifications Materials Are Used For Sound Absorbent

Guidelines For Use Plastic Emulsions Paints

Types Of Paints

Painting On Different Surfaces Woodwork Metal Etc

Notes For Guidance In The Process Of Painting

Polyurethane Sealant

Precautions Taken In The Design Installation Of Pvc Pipes

Polysulphide Sealants

Preventive Measures For Corrosion

Structural Adhesives

Moulding Compounds Types

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Pvc Pipes

Bonding Agents Cement Based Slurries

Biodegradable Plastic Its Advantages Disadvantages

Adhesives Difference Between Sealant And Adhesive

Application Of Epoxy Adhesive

Non Structural Adhesives

Wall Paper Whitewashing Colourwashing

Defects In Painting

Ingredients Of A Distemper Process Of Distempering

Applications Of Frp In Building Industry

Classification Methods Of Polymerization

Distempering Properties Of Distempers

Properties Of Plastics

Processes Involved In The Fabrication Of Articles Of Plastics

Selection Of Material For Injection Grouting

Plastics Composition Of Plastic

Pvc Pipes In Buildings

Properties Of Frp Fibre Glass Reinforced Plastic

Materials Commonly Used as Sealants

Silicone Sealant

Classification Of Sealants

Types Of Varnishes Process Of Varnishing

Various Types Of Grouting Materials

Sealant Consistencies

Uses Of Plastics

Failure Of Paint

Desirable Properties Of Sealant

Bonding Agent Between Old And New Concrete

Varnishing Characteristics Of An Ideal Varnish Ingredients

Fibre Glass Reinforced Plastic Frp Principal Methods

Sealants Functions Of Sealants Procedure

Preventive Measures For Corrosion

Classification Of Sealants

Sealant Consistencies

Desirable Properties Of Sealant

Sealants Functions Of Sealants Procedure

Cold Twisted Deformed Bars Ctd Bars Disadvantages

Magnetic Properties Of Steel

Composition Of Cast Iron

Metals Categories Ferrous Metals

Market Forms Of Steel Steel Available In Market

Use Of Wrought Iron

Factors Influencing Corrosion

Corrosion Of ferrous Metals Non Ferrous Metals

Uses Of Cast Iron

Metal Corrosion Types Of Corrosion Effect Of Corrosion

Heat Treatment Processes Of Steel

Mechanical Treatment Of Steel

Precautions In Using Mortar

Defects In Steel

Pig Iron Manufacture Of Pig Iron

Prevention Of Corrosion Of Steel In Concrete

Forms Of Corrosion

Selection Of Mortar As Per Nature Of Work Type Of Mortar

Nature And Properties Of Metals

Ribbed Hysd Bars High Yielding Strength Deformed Bars

Defects In Wrought Iron

Types Of Pig Iron

Thermo Mechanically Treated Tmt Bars Why Prefer Tmt Over Hysd Bars

Causes Of Corrosion

Defects In Metal Casting

Properties Of Engineering Materials

Is Classification Of Lime

Rock Forming Minerals

Comparison Between Lime And Hydraulic Lime

Physical Properties Of Engineering Materials

Common Building Stones Of India

Uses Of Stones

Mechanical Properties Of Materials

Physical Classification Of Rocks

Classification Materials Based Upon Their Uses

Chemical Classification Of Rocks

Qualities Of Good Building Stone

Lime Classification Of Limes

Textures Of Structure Of A Rock

Classification Of Rocks

Factors Of Corrosion Of Reinforcement

Precautions While Using Epoxies

Physical And Mechanical Properties Of Polymer Modified Mortar Concrete

Special Materials For Repair

Essential Eequirements Of Repair Materials

Classification Of Polymeric Modifiers

Deleterious Effects Of Aggressive Chemicals

Causes Of Deterioration Of Concrete Structures

Application Of polymer Modified Mortar concrete Pmm Pmc In Repairs

Corrosion Of Reinforcement Explained

Advantages Of Using Epoxies As A Repair Material

Types Of Materials Available For Repair

Application Of epoxy Based Materials In Repairs

Gauge Type of Mechanical Gauges

Specifications for cement, Specifications for physical properties of Portland cement

Introduction of Cement, Types of cement

Construction Materials- Introduction, Classification of engineering material, Properties of Engineering Materials

Lift Design Important Factors Traffic Constraints

Classification Of Lifts Rope Hydraulic Lift

Water Requirements For Sprinkler Systems By pipe Schedule Hydraulic Method Calculation

Operating System Automatic Operation Full Selective Collective Duplex Collective

Spacing Area Of Coverage Of Sprinklers Maximum Minimum Distance Between Sprinkler

Lifts Types Of Lifts

Hydraulically Most Demanding Area

Water Requirement For Sprinkler System

Types Of Systems Of Sprinklers

Traffic Analysis For Lift Positioning Occupancy Calculation Of Time Factor

Hydraulic Elevators

Essential Components Of Lifts Elevators Brakes Hoisting Rope Motor Counter Weights

Power Control Ac Resistance Control Variable Frequency Drive

Classification Of Occupancies Firefighting

Important Definition For Sprinkler Firefighting

Classification Of Lift According To Interiors

Pump Capacity Water Storage Requirement

Sprinkler Types Upright Pendant Sidewall System

Piping Of Sprinkler System

Important Points Related To Pipe Selection Laying

Selection On Temperature Rating

Automatic Sprinkler System

Dimensional Structural Requirements For Lift Tolerance Allowed In Structure

---NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN

Basic Principles Of Water Supply Drainage And Sanitation

Water Supply Requirements For Buildings

Protection Of Water Supply

Estimate Of Demand Load Of Water Supply

Design Of Distribution Systems Of Water Supply

Water Supply Materials Fittings And Appliances

Colour Codes For Different Types Of Water Pipes

Important Water Supply Related Definitions

Consideration For Design Of Water Supply

Water Supply Fixture Units (wsfu) For Ifferent Fixtures With Minimum Pipe sizes

Storage Of Water

Water Sources And Quality

Maximum Flow Rate And Flush Volumes

Sponsored

PD Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd. Transforming construction for a new generation "Cost, Quality & Project management"

QS & Cost management, Bill Checking / Audit, Technical Auditors, Valuation, Contract and Tendering, Project Management, Project Planning, Quality Control, Consulting Engineers, Structural Consultancy

Close