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Various types of grouting materials

Er. Parbhakar Dwivedi
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1. Cement or cement/s and grouts

Bulk of grouting is done with cementitious materials because of the high cost of polymer and epoxy resins. Cementitious grouts are of two types: (a) cement slurry grout and (b) cement sand grouts. Shrinkage compensating cement (cement of Grade 43 admixed with suitable grout admixture or polymer) is used in both types of grouts. Proportion of sand in cement/ sand grout varies from 1:0.5 to 1:2 (1cement: 0.5 to 2.0 fine sand). These grouts require high water content to achieve peaceable consistencies that promote shrinkage and cracking on hardening. That is why shrinkage compensating admixture is essential to be mixed for good result.

2. Gas-forming grouts

These grouts contain expansion-producing ingredients which react with the cement to generate gas bubbles. The gas expands the grout to help compensate for any shrinkage that occurs in the plastic state before the grout has hardened. Vertical and lateral restraint is required to achieve specified strength and volume stability in the hardened stage. Aluminium powder and finely divided carbon are used to produce the gas producing reaction. Some of the disadvantages of these products are that they are quite temperature sensitive.

3. Epoxy Grout (ASTM-C-882):

The essential feature of resin injection is to inject a suitably formulated polymer resin into the cracks. The resins most used are epoxy, polymer and polyurethane. The desirable qualities include low viscosity, ability to bond to damp concrete, suitability for injection in as wide a range of temperature as possible, low shrinkage, and finally toughness rather than high strength. This implies a relatively low modulus of elasticity combined with high yield point. A low value of modulus of elasticity is particularly important when further movement is expected to take place across the cracks. Most cracks in concrete are caused by either tension or shear, and the use of a resin with high ME could result in the concrete cracking again near and probably parallel to the repaired crack. Because of the high cost of materials, these are used for repairs of expansion joints and other specialized applications.

Viscosity at 25°C, maximum 200 cps
Minimum Gel time 30 minutes
14 days bond strength at 25°C, minimum 3.5 Mpa
Minimum compressive strength at 7 days 60 Mpa
Tensile strength (7 days, minimum) 45 Mpa
Pot life of mixed adhesive at 25°C, 1 hour ± 15 minutes
Setting time of mixed adhesive at 25°C, 3 – 6 hours

4. Sulfoaluminate grouts

Most of the expansion produced by Sulfoaluminate grouts occurs after the grout has set. The expansion can be produced by shrinkage- compensation cement or an anhydrous sulfo aluminate expansive additive used with Portland cement. The expansion producing reaction occurs when the anhydrous calcium Sulfoaluminate is converted to the hydrated ettringite. Sulfoaluminate cement-based materials are less prone to strength reduction due to increased w/c ratios than the Portland cement -based materials. The initially achieved expansion could well be lost if there is no moist curing after the grout is placed.

5. Fiber-reinforced grouts

These grouts may have polypropylene, steel, or glass fibers dispersed in either a Portland cement or a shrinkage compensating mortar. The fibers impart much improved impact resistance and flexural strengths. The stress required to produce cracking is significantly increases and the integrity of the grout after cracking is preserved thus preventing a catastrophic type of failure.

6. Metallic aggregate grouts

These contain iron fillings, to impart toughness, and an oxidation catalyst, such as ferric chloride, that produces expansion to compensate for settling and drying shrinkage. To develop their full strength and stability such grouts require rigid confinement. They are not recommended for areas that are exposed to wet and dry cycling and stray electrical currents. Most of the cementations grouts are available as one-component products that require only the addition of water in the field. Storage life, under proper conditions of low humidity and temperature, is 2 to 18 months.

7. Polymer grouts

Polymer grouts are generally used for equipment bases or concrete repair, especially in areas subjected to chemical exposure, freeze/thaw, impact stresses, or when a fast turnaround time is important. Most grouts are supplied as three-component materials having;

• A liquid resin component

• A fluid-reactive curing agent component, and

• A dry filler component

In some cases, two-component products are package with the curing agent mixed in with the aggregate.

The composition of these products may consist of resin and hardener systems which are tolerant to moisture. They are usually pumped or poured. Although epoxy grouts generally have good chemical resistance to oils and chemicals, there are some applications where the chemical environment may be too severe for epoxy grout. Under such conditions, it is more advantageous to use a vinyl ester-based grout. To prevent potential penetration of the corrosive agent to the concrete, a glass reinforced monolithic surfacing is installed prior to application of the polyester, Vinyl ester and epoxy.

Because of the more costly installation procedure and the higher shrinkage, polyester, vinyl ester, and epoxy should only be used in situations where rigorous chemical exposure condition ns dictate their use. Properties of these grouts include high compressive strength of 3 to 4 times that of standard concrete, and high tensile bond strengths. One of the most important performance factors which distinguish the service capabilities of organic polymer grouts from those of cementitious grouting materials is their excellent adhesion to variety of construction materials.

8. Acrylate and urethane grouts

These groups are used in subgrade injection to repair sewer leaks, control ground water movements, and stabilize sail. The chemical systems used for such purposes include acrylamides, polyacrylamides, and urethanes and acrylates. These groups have very low viscosities and can be controlled to set almost instantly after predetermined elapsed times. Some, like urethanes, are even activated or catalyzed by water itself. The grouts are true solutions; their constituent materials dissolve completely or combine with water to provide a very thin mix. Since their particle size is less than one third the size of the void being filled, they penetrate completely and prevent fracture of the void being filled; they penetrate completely and prevent fracture of the void.

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