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Water Supply Requirements for Buildings

Er. Parbhakar Dwivedi


The total quantity of water per day is estimated based on the proposed occupancy and activities catered. Designer has to identify all the possible sources for augmenting the shortfall in water supply. The analysis of available water is done to decide the treatment for consumption and treatment process depends on the quality of water and the purpose for which it is used.

Projection of population for each building shall be made on the basis of its usage. Population for each type of building shall be estimated on the basis of information obtained from the users.

a) Residential buildings:

Accommodation Population Requirements
1 bedroom dwelling unit 4
2 bedroom dwelling unit 5
3 bedroom dwelling unit 6
4 bedroom dwelling unit 7


1 The above figures consider a domestic house- hold including support personnel, wherever applicable.

2 For plotted development, the population may be arrived at after due consideration of the expected number and type of domestic household units.

3 Dwelling unit under EWS category shall have population requirement of 4 and studio apartment shall have population requirement of 2.

b) Other than residential buildings:

Accommodation Population Requirements
Offices 1 person per 10 m2 of floor area (see Note 1)
Schools Strength of school + Teaching and non-teaching staff
Hostels Number of beds + 4.5 x (warden’s residence) + staff
Hotels Number of beds + Staff + Requirement of restaurant seats
Hospitals Number of beds + Staff + Patient attendants (generally population density per bed in secondary care hospital is 5, tertiary care is 7 and quaternary care is 9)
Mercantile 1 person per 3 m2 of street floor and sales basement areas + 1 person per 6 m2 of upper sale floors (Total population may be segregated into 10 percent for fixed and 90 percent for floating/visitors)
Traffic terminal stations Average number of users per day (Total annual passenger traffic/365) + Staff + Vendors


1 Wherever there are multiple work shifts, the number of users within a 24 h period may be considered as per actuals.

2 Population of 5 to 15 percent, depending on the usage of building, shall be considered for visitors and floating population likely to use the buildings facilities.

Water Requirements for Residences Buildings:

Population Special Requirement Water requirement
Up to 20,000 Water supply through stand post 40 lphd
Water supply through house service connection 70 to 100 lphd
20,000 – 100,000 Full flushing system 100 to 135 lphd
Above 100,000 Full flushing system 150 to 200 lphd

(lphd – Litres per head per day)


 The value of water supply given as 150 to 200 litre per head per day may be reduced to 135 litre per head per day for houses for Medium Income Group (MIG) and Lower Income Groups (LIG) and Economically Weaker Section of Society (EWS), depending upon prevailing conditions and availability of water.

 Out of the 150 to 200 litre per head per day, 45 litre per head per day may be taken for flushing requirements and the remaining quantity for other domestic purposes.

Water Requirements for Other Buildings

S. No Type of Building Domestic Per Day in litre Flushing Per Day in litre Total Consumption Per Day in litre
1 Factories including canteen where bath rooms are required to be provided 30 per head 15 per head 45 per head
2 Factories including canteen where no bath rooms are required to be provided 20 per head 10 per head 30 per head
3 Hospital (excluding laundry and kitchen) (see Note 2):
a) Number of beds not exceeding 100 230 per head 110 per head 340 per head
b) Number of beds exceeding 100 300 per head 150 per head 450 per head
c) Out patient department (OPD) 10 per head 5 per head 15 per head
4 Nurses. homes and medical quarters 90 per head 45 per head 135 per head
5 Hostels 90 per head 45 per head 135 per head
6 Hotel (up to 3 star) excluding laundry, kitchen, staff and water bodies 120 per head 60 per head 180 per head
7 Hotel (4 star and above) excluding laundry, kitchen, staff and water bodi 260 per head 60 per head 320 per head
8 Offices (including canteen) 25 per head 20 per head 45 per head
9 Restaurants and food court including water requirement for kitchen:
a) Restaurants 55 per head 15 per head 70 per head
b) Food court 25 per head 10 per head 35 per head
10 Clubhouse 25 per head 20 per head 45 per head
11 Stadiums 4 per head 6 per head 10 per head
12 Cinemas, concert halls and theatres and multiplex 5 per head 10 per head 15 per head
13 Schools/Educational institutions:
a) Without boarding facilities 20 per head 25 per head 45 per head
b) With boarding facilities 90 per head 45 per head 135 per head
14 Shopping and retail (mall)
a) Staff 25 per head 20 per head 45 per head
b) Visitors 5 per head 10 per head 15 per head
15 Traffic terminal stations (see Notes 3 and 4)
a) Airports 40 per head 30 per head 70 per head
b) Railway stations (Junctions) with bathing facility 40 per head 30 per head 70 per head
c) Railway stations (Junctions) without bathing facility 30 per head 15 per head 45 per head
d) Railway Stations (Intermediate) with bathing facility 25 per head 20 per head 45 per head
e) Railway Stations (Intermediate) without bathing facility 15 per head 10 per head 25 per head
f) Interstate bus terminals 25 per head 20 per head 45 per head
g) Intrastate Bus Terminals/Metro Stations 10 per head 5 per head 15 per head


1 For calculating water demand for visitors, consumption of 15 litre per head per day may be taken.

2 The water demand includes requirement of patients, attendants, visitors and staff. Additional water demand for kitchen, laundry and clinical water shall be computed as per actual requirements.

3 The number of persons shall be determined by average number of passengers handled by stations, with due considerations given to the staff and vendors who are using these facilities.

4 Consideration should be given for seasonal average peak requirements.

5 The hospitals may be categorized as Category A (25 to 50 beds), Category B (51 to 100 beds), Category C (101 to 300 beds), Category D (301 to 500) and Category E (501 to 750 beds).

For Traffic Terminal Stations

Requirements of water supply for traffic terminal stations shall be as per Table-1

The water supply requirements of traffic terminal stations (railway stations, bus stations, harbours, airports, etc.) include provisions for waiting rooms and waiting hall

They do not, however, include requirements for retiring rooms

For Other Purposes

Air-Conditioning, Swimming pools, Water Bodies and Gardening, Treated water from sewage treatment plant, with suitable tertiary treatment, should be used for Flushing purpose (with dual piping system), Gardening purpose, Cooling tower make up, and/or for other non-potable usage

The water demand for landscaping purposes is generally taken as 6 to 8 litre/m2/day for lawns. For shrubs and trees the value can be reduced considerably


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